Danilo Rocco, Luigi D. Gravara and Cesare Gridelli* Pages 11-19 (9)
Background: In the recent years, immunotherapeutics and specifically immunecheckpoints inhibitors have marked a significant shift in the diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), allowing us to use immunotherapeutics alone or combined with chemotherapy for a great subset of patients. However, new interesting approaches are being presently investigated, markedly immunotherapy combinations, that is, the use of two or more immunotherapeutics combined.
Methods: In particular, the combination of anti-PD-1 nivolumab and anti-CTLA-4 ipilimumab has already provided groundbreaking positive results in the advanced NSCLC and other combinations are currently under investigation.
Results: Therefore, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review about immunotherapy combination, along with suggestions about future directions. A comprehensive literature search was carried out to identify eligible studies from MEDLINE/PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov.
Conclusion: Nivolumab plus ipilimumab represent the most promising immunotherapy combination for the treatment of advanced NSCLC patients; safety, tolerability and efficacy of new immunotherapeutics (in monotherapy and in immunotherapy combinations) must be further assessed in future studies.
NSCLC, immunotherapy, combination therapy, immune modulators, TMB, LAG-3, OX40, IDO1.
Department of Pulmonary Oncology, AORN dei Colli Monaldi, Naples, Department of Experimental Medicine Luigi Vanvitelli University, Caserta, Division of Medical Oncology, “S.G. Moscati” Hospital, Avellino